Freud extended this idea of ambivalence to the relationship of citizens with their sovereign. In ceremonies around kings, which are often quite violent (like the king who starves in the forest for a few weeks), he considers two levels that function as «ostensible» (i.e. the king is honored) and the «true» (i.e. the king is tortured). Using examples, he illustrates taboos about leaders. He says that the kings of Ireland have been subject to restrictions, such as. B not being able to visit certain cities or certain days of the week. [3] Incest itself has been shot in both directions, with some seeking to normalize consensual relationships between adults, regardless of the degree of kinship [22] (particularly in Europe)[23][24] and others that have broadened the degree of prohibited contact (particularly in the United States). [25] Although the term taboo usually implies negative connotations, it is sometimes associated with enticing phrases in proverbs such as forbidden fruit. [26] Do not allow teenagers (especially boys) to marry magic (ritual acts, protective jewelry, etc.) The exercise of abortion (chemical or surgical) in accordance with a post-parpartum taboo (banning husbands and wives who have sex for a period after the birth of a child) The term «taboo» comes from the taboo tongan or Fiji taboo («forbidden»), «prohibited»), [4] referring, among other things, to The Maori tapu and Hawaii. Its English use dates back to 1777, when the British explorer visited James Cook Tonga, and referred to the Tongans` use of the term «taboo» for «anything forbidden to be eaten or used.» [5] He wrote: Kroeber published in 1952 a re-evaluation of the totem and taboo. [10] Marvin Harris described Totem and Tabu as a representative of what Boas followers considered «the worst form of evolutionary speculation,» and criticized «the grandiloquie of his compass, the volatility of his evidence… universality of its conclusions and their `anachronistic framework`.

According to him, nothing prepared the work of «Orthodox Freudians» to deal with the cultural diversity of certain personality structures revealed by the works of Bronislaw Malinowski, Margaret Mead and Ruth Benedict. [11] Peter Farb wrote that totem and taboo show «the lengths in which a theorist will go to find an explanation» for totemism, adding that anthropologists in 1968, despite their disagreements on other issues, agree that the work is «completely discredited». [12] «The horror of incest» concerns the taboos of incest, adopted by societies that believe in totemism. The word «taboo» has sometimes gained popularity, with some scholars looking for ways to apply it where other English words had been used before. Thus, J.M Powis Smith, in his book The American Bible (preface to the publisher 1927), occasionally used «taboo» about Israel`s tabernacles and ceremonial laws, including Exodus 30:36, Exodus 29:37; Numbers 16:37-38; Deuteronomy 22:9, Isaiah 65:5, Ezekiel 44:19 and Esekiel 46:20. Postpartum sex taboos are surprisingly long in some societies.